Undertake an Independent Study on Feasibility of PFI on The Ambulance Services – Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister’s Department (EPU)

The Economic Planning Unit is the principal government agency responsible for the preparation of development plans for the nation.


We were entrusted to undertake an independent study on costing of ambulance services in the Public Sector.  The study include identifying cost components in the provision of ambulance services, developing a Public Sector Comparator (PSC) that to be used as a tool to evaluate the options available in Public-Private Partnership (PPP) concept in services sector i.e. leasing, outsourcing, Private Finance Initiatives (PFI). 

The study was the first in Malaysia that look at PFI in services sector.


Our scope of work includes:

  • Undertake study on current state of ambulance services in Malaysia
  • Identify the components involved in the provision of ambulance services in Malaysia comprises of Land, Water and Air ambulances
  • Identify the pros and cons and the costs involved in providing the ambulance services with leasing, outsourcing and PFI option
  • Undertake an evaluation of proposals that were submitted by bidders to offer ambulance services in Malaysia
  • Recommend the best possible option for the provision of ambulance service in respect of differentiating financial model

Value to the client:

  • Developed the first Public Sector Comparator (PSC) based on ideal operating requirement in the provision of ambulance services in Malaysia. The PSC developed was the first in Malaysia
  • Ascertained the current cost of providing the ambulance services throughout Malaysia
  • Confirmed the Output Specifications that specify the actual requirement on the scope of ambulance services in Malaysia such as scope of services, minimum standard requirement, services standard and etc.